COPD Trends Brief: Risk Factors and Patient CharacteristicsCOPD rates are not the same across demographic groups. This page describes COPD rates in different categories.
- Most COPD cases are caused by cigarette smoking. Compared to never smokers, COPD rates are 7 times higher among current smokers and 5 times higher among former smokers.
- In 2020, COPD rates were lowest among those with a family income two times greater than the poverty threshold or more compared to those with lower family incomes.
- Psychiatric comorbidities, such as depression and anxiety, are common among those with COPD. In 2020, 43.5% of those with COPD reported ever being diagnosed with anxiety or depression, compared to 20.5% among those without COPD.
- COPD can severely limit one’s ability to work, get around, do chores, or manage personal care. In 2020, a third (33.1%) of those with COPD reported having at least one disability, compared to only 7.5% among those without COPD.
- Those with COPD are at increased risk for complications from influenza and are recommended to receive annual vaccination against the seasonal flu. In 2020, close to two-thirds (61.8%) of those with COPD reported receiving a flu vaccination in the last year, compared to 46.1% among those without COPD.
- Those with COPD are at increased risk for pneumococcal pneumonia infection and are recommended to be vaccinated against it. In 2020, 62.0% of those with COPD had received a shot for pneumococcal pneumonia, compared to 22.8% among those without COPD.