Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a term which refers to a group of lung diseases characterized by obstruction of air flow that interferes with normal breathing. Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are the most well-known conditions that compose COPD and they frequently coexist.
- Among those age 55 and older, death rates are decreasing for every ten-year age group, except for those age 85 and older, for whom the rate has increased at a rate of half a percent per year from 1999 to 2018.
- Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. HCUPnet, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, 1993-2016.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, 2018. Analysis by the American Lung Association Epidemiology and Statistics Unit using SPSS software.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. CDC WONDER On-line Database, compiled from Underlying Cause of Death 1999-2018, 2020.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health Interview Survey, 1999-2018. Analysis by the American Lung Association Research and Program Services Division of using SPSS software.
- National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. Morbidity and Mortality: 2009 Chart Book on Cardiovascular, Lung and Blood Diseases.
- Tilert T, Dillon C, Paulose-Ram R, et al. Estimating the U.S. Prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using Pre- and Post-Bronchodilator Spirometry: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010. Respiratory Research. 2013; 14(1):103.
- United States Census Bureau. Population Estimates, 2009.