KRAS was the most commonly identified biomarker (25%), followed by EGFR (17%) and ALK (7%).
In 2010-2016, most (57%) lung cancer cases were not diagnosed until the tumor had already spread to other parts of the body (distant stage).
Only 17% of cases were diagnosed at an early stage when the tumor was still limited to the lungs (localized stage).
The percent of people still alive 5 years after diagnoses, or the 5-year survival rate, was only 6% for those diagnosed at the distant stage, compared to 59% for those diagnosed at the localized stage.
Survival is higher for cases diagnosed early because treatment is more likely to be curative.
The percent of people still alive 5 years after being diagnosed with lung cancer, or the 5-year survival rate, was 21.8% in 2010-2016.
The lung cancer 5-year survival rate increased steadily from 1984-1986 to 2002-2004, and since then has increased at a faster rate.
In 2019, 5.7% of those at high risk were screened for lung cancer using a low-dose computed tomography (CT) scan. High risk is defined as:
55-80 years of age;
Have a 30 pack-year history of smoking (this means 1 pack a day for 30 years, 2 packs a day for 15 years, etc.);
AND, are a current smoker, or have quit within the last 15 years.
Screening those at high risk for lung cancer with low-dose CT scans can reduce the lung cancer mortality rate by around 20% and was recommended by the United States Preventative Services Task Force in 2014.
Screening has increased steadily every year since 2015.
Other causes include exposure to radon, occupational carcinogens, and outdoor air pollution.
In 2018, lung cancer medical care accounted for $14.2 billion in expenditures.
In 2005, lung cancer accounted for an additional $36.1 billion in lost productivity due to death.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. HCUPnet, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, 1993-2017. Analysis by the American Lung Association Epidemiology and Statistics Unit.
Alberg AJ & Samet J. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer. Chest, January 2003; 123:21S-49S.
American College of Radiology. Lung Cancer Screening Registry State Level Comparison, 2014-2019.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, 2013-2019. Analysis by the American Lung Association Epidemiology and Statistics Unit using SPSS software.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. CDC WONDER On-line Database, compiled from Multiple Cause of Death Files, 1999-2019.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health Interview Survey, 2015. Analysis performed by the American Lung Association Epidemiology and Statistics Unit using SPSS software.
Tsao AS, et al. Scientific Advances in Lung Cancer 2015. Journal of Thoracic Oncology. 2016; 11(5):613-38.