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Asthma Trends and Burden

Asthma impacts those with the disease in many ways that may differ by demographic group and can change over time. This page describes trends and disparities in asthma mortality (deaths), prevalence (number of cases), healthcare use, number of missed school and work days, and economic costs. Prevalence includes lifetime, current, and attack, and healthcare use includes hospitalizations and emergency department visits.

Asthma Mortality

  • In 2016, 3,518 people died from asthma.
  • The asthma death rate decreased 41 percent from 1.7 per 100,000 population in 1999 to 1.0 in 2016, although progress has slowed since 2007.
  • In 2016, 61 percent of asthma deaths were in women, and the asthma death rate was 32 percent higher among women than men.
  • The asthma death rate was 2.8 times greater among Blacks than Whites in 2016.  

    Trends in Asthma Mortality by Sex and Race/Ethnicity

      Total Male Female White Non-Hispanic Black Other Hispanic
    Year Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate
    1999 4,657 1.7 1,620 1.3 3,037 2.0 3,011 1.4 1,134 4.0 179 1.4 320 1.4
    2000 4,487 1.6 1,632 1.3 2,855 1.8 2,836 1.3 1,145 3.9 183 1.3 292 1.3
    2001 4,269 1.5 1,479 1.2 2,790 1.8 2,717 1.2 1,092 3.7 167 1.2 274 1.2
    2002 4,261 1.5 1,580 1.2 2,681 1.7 2,720 1.2 1,083 3.5 147 1.2 287 1.2
    2003 4,099 1.4 1,493 1.2 2,606 1.6 2,589 1.1 1,019 3.2 178 1.1 299 1.1
    2004 3,816 1.3 1,386 1.1 2,430 1.5 2,377 1.0 1,001 3.2 146 1.0 281 1.0
    2005 3,884 1.3 1,315 1.0 2,569 1.5 2,475 1.1 1,002 3.1 149 1.1 248 1.1
    2006 3,613 1.2 1,296 1.0 2,317 1.4 2,246 1.0 943 2.8 154 1.0 257 1.0
    2007 3,447 1.1 1,274 0.9 2,173 1.2 2,151 0.9 893 2.6 163 0.9 239 0.9
    2008 3,397 1.1 1,186 0.8 2,211 1.2 2,070 0.9 892 2.5 153 0.9 271 0.9
    2009 3,388 1.1 1,220 0.8 2,168 1.2 2,012 0.8 905 2.5 159 0.8 302 0.8
    2010 3,404 1.0 1,283 0.9 2,121 1.2 2,082 0.9 862 2.4 155 0.9 292 0.9
    2011 3,345 1.0 1,262 0.8 2,083 1.1 2,023 0.8 899 2.4 171 0.8 244 0.8
    2012 3,531 1.0 1,357 0.9 2,174 1.2 2,159 0.9 948 2.5 136 0.9 277 0.9
    2013 3,630 1.1 1,410 0.9 2,220 1.2 2,100 0.8 991 2.6 204 0.8 327 0.8
    2014 3,651 1.1 1,392 0.9 2,259 1.2 2,163 0.9 991 2.5 182 0.9 301 0.9
    2015 3,615 1.0 1,388 0.9 2,227 1.1 2,119 0.8 966 2.4 195 0.8 305 0.8
    2016 3,518 1.0 1,356 0.8 2,162 1.1 2,042 0.8 951 2.3 174 0.8 334 0.8
    Year Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate

    Sources:
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. CDC Wonder On-line Database, compiled from Compressed Mortality File 1999-2016 Series 20 No. 2U, 2019.

    • Age-adjusted rates are per 100,000 population and should be used for comparisons as they account for important underlying differences between populations.
    • Deaths are coded by the 10th revision of International Classification of Diseases, codes J45-J46.
  • Both the number and rate of deaths from asthma are much greater among older age groups. Fortunately, death rates have been decreasing among those ages 45-64 and 65 years and older.  

    Trends in Asthma Mortality by Age

      <5 5-14 15-44 45-64 65+
    Year Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate
    1999 32 0.2 126 0.3 891 0.7 1,190 2.0 2,418 6.9
    2000 40 0.2 129 0.3 874 0.7 1,154 1.9 2,290 6.5
    2001 41 0.2 99 0.2 828 0.7 1,156 1.8 2,145 6.1
    2002 47 0.2 123 0.3 876 0.7 1,144 1.7 2,070 5.8
    2003 44 0.2 110 0.3 796 0.6 1,194 1.7 1,955 5.5
    2004 36 0.2 105 0.3 732 0.6 1,082 1.5 1,861 5.1
    2005 41 0.2 97 0.2 707 0.6 1,115 1.5 1,924 5.3
    2006 32 0.2 99 0.2 702 0.6 1,058 1.4 1,722 4.6
    2007 45 0.2 107 0.3 654 0.5 999 1.3 1,640 4.3
    2008 43 0.2 112 0.3 631 0.5 967 1.2 1,644 4.2
    2009 43 0.2 114 0.3 674 0.5 1,021 1.3 1,536 3.9
    2010 37 0.2 119 0.3 645 0.5 1,084 1.3 1,519 3.8
    2011 41 0.2 128 0.3 647 0.5 1,038 1.3 1,491 3.6
    2012 39 0.2 113 0.3 685 0.5 1,153 1.4 1,540 3.6
    2013 38 0.2 145 0.4 718 0.6 1,133 1.4 1,596 3.6
    2014 31 0.2 130 0.3 801 0.6 1,163 1.4 1,526 3.3
    2015 28 0.1 161 0.4 763 0.6 1,119 1.3 1,544 3.2
    2016 35 0.2 134 0.3 798 0.6 1,115 1.3 1,436 2.9
    Year Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate

    Sources:
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. CDC Wonder On-line Database, compiled from Compressed Mortality File 1999-2016 Series 20 No. 2U, 2019.

    • Death rates are age-specific and per 100,000 population.
    • Deaths are coded by the 10th revision of International Classification of Diseases, codes J45-J46.
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Asthma Prevalence

Lifetime Asthma Prevalence

  • In 2017, 42.7 million Americans, or 13.3 percent, had ever been diagnosed with asthma by a health professional.
  • This was an increase of 46 percent from 9.1 percent in 1999.
  • Children ages 5-17 years had the highest lifetime prevalence rates compared to other age groups at 15.7 percent in 2017.
  • Females (14.0%) were about 12 percent more likely than males (12.6%) to ever have been diagnosed with asthma in 2017.
  • Blacks are more likely than other races and ethnicities to be diagnosed with asthma over their lifetime. In 2017 they had the highest lifetime prevalence rate at 15.2 percent.
  • At 14.7 percent, those with some college had the highest lifetime prevalence rate compared to other education levels in 2017.  

    Trends in Lifetime Asthma Rate by Age, Sex and Race/Ethnicity

      1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
      Rate Count (thousands)
    Total 9.1% 10.1% 11.3% 11.1% 10.4% 10.5% 11.2% 11.6% 11.5% 12.9% 13.2% 12.9% 12.9% 13.0% 12.0% 12.9% 12.7% 13.6% 13.3% 42,652
    Age  
    <5 7.0% 7.8% 7.9% 7.3% 7.5% 7.3% 8.6% 7.5% 8.0% 7.2% 7.9% 8.0% 8.3% 7.0% 5.9% 5.6% 5.7% 5.1% 5.6% 1,101
    5-17 12.2% 14.0% 14.4% 14.0% 14.3% 14.0% 14.2% 15.7% 15.0% 16.4% 16.1% 15.8% 16.3% 16.6% 15.2% 16.4% 15.7% 15.6% 15.7% 8,461
    18-44 9.3% 9.8% 11.8% 11.5% 10.1% 9.9% 11.2% 11.5% 11.7% 13.5% 14.3% 13.6% 13.6% 13.4% 12.2% 14.0% 13.5% 15.3% 14.8% 16,771
    45-64 8.0% 8.7% 10.4% 10.6% 9.8% 9.9% 10.5% 10.5% 10.4% 12.0% 12.3% 12.1% 12.2% 12.7% 12.1% 12.1% 12.7% 13.7% 13.0% 10,817
    65+ 6.5% 8.4% 8.7% 8.0% 8.1% 9.7% 9.9% 10.6% 9.7% 11.0% 11.3% 11.1% 10.4% 10.4% 10.3% 10.9% 10.3% 10.9% 11.1% 5,502
    Sex  
    Male 8.7% 9.9% 10.8% 10.6% 9.7% 10.2% 10.3% 11.1% 11.0% 12.2% 12.6% 11.9% 12.1% 12.1% 11.3% 12.0% 11.9% 12.7% 12.6% 19,697
    Female 9.5% 10.3% 11.9% 11.6% 11.1% 10.8% 12.1% 12.1% 12.0% 13.5% 13.9% 13.9% 13.8% 13.8% 12.7% 13.9% 13.5% 14.5% 14.0% 22,955
    Race/Ethnicity  
    White 9.1% 10.2% 11.5% 11.1% 10.3% 10.5% 11.2% 11.7% 11.4% 12.9% 13.3% 12.6% 12.6% 13.0% 12.0% 12.8% 12.8% 13.7% 13.6% 26,880
    Black 10.3% 11.4% 12.4% 13.8% 12.8% 13.0% 13.4% 13.3% 13.0% 15.7% 16.3% 17.0% 16.6% 16.7% 14.8% 16.0% 15.2% 17.0% 15.2% 6,421
    Asian 18.0% 10.9% 14.3% 14.1% 17.3% 15.2% 12.6% 16.8% 13.7% 18.8% 14.4% 11.6% 21.8% 18.1% 12.3% 17.4% 16.1% 15.5% 13.4% 1,791
    American Indian/Alaska Native 5.4% 7.3% 7.8% 8.6% 6.0% 6.4% 8.5% 9.3% 8.9% 8.7% 9.5% 9.9% 8.6% 7.6% 7.4% 9.2% 7.7% 9.5% 8.8% 500
    Hispanic 8.0% 8.2% 9.5% 8.3% 8.8% 8.4% 9.2% 9.8% 10.2% 10.1% 11.0% 10.9% 11.5% 11.1% 10.4% 11.6% 11.1% 11.4% 12.0% 6,935
    Education  
    Less Than High School 8.2% 9.2% 10.2% 9.6% 10.2% 10.8% 10.3% 10.9% 10.1% 11.3% 12.9% 11.6% 12.2% 11.5% 11.3% 11.6% 11.6% 11.7% 12.3% 3,006
    High School Diploma or GED 7.7% 7.9% 9.5% 9.3% 8.4% 8.6% 9.1% 9.5% 9.2% 11.0% 11.2% 10.3% 11.7% 11.0% 10.6% 11.0% 12.0% 12.5% 11.9% 6,118
    Some College 8.4% 9.8% 11.2% 11.3% 10.5% 10.8% 11.4% 12.3% 11.8% 13.1% 14.2% 14.0% 13.0% 13.9% 12.5% 13.6% 13.9% 14.8% 14.7% 9,054
    Bachelors Degree or Higher 7.5% 8.7% 10.2% 9.9% 8.9% 9.3% 10.4% 10.0% 10.8% 11.5% 11.9% 12.1% 11.3% 11.8% 11.4% 11.9% 11.3% 13.1% 12.7% 10,019
      2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

    Source:
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health Interview Survey, 2001-2017. Harmonized by Minnesota Population Center and State Health Access Data Assistance Center. Integrated Health Interview Series data analyzed by the American Lung Association Research and Program Services Division.

    • Lifetime prevalence is defined as answering yes to "Have you ever been told by a doctor or other health professional that you had asthma?"
    • Education categories include only adults ages 25 years and older.

Current Asthma Prevalence

  • In 2017, 25.2 million Americans, or 7.9 percent, had ever been diagnosed with asthma by a health professional and reported that they still had asthma.
  • From 2001 to 2010, current asthma prevalence rates increased at a statistically-significant average rate of 0.1 points per year. From 2010 to 2017, the average change per year has not been statistically significantly different and has remained flat.  

    Trends in Current Asthma Rate by Age, Sex and Race/Ethnicity

      2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
      Rate Count (thousands)
    Total 7.4% 7.2% 7.0% 7.1% 7.7% 7.8% 7.7% 7.8% 8.2% 8.5% 8.5% 8.3% 7.3% 7.7% 7.8% 8.3% 7.9% 25,191
    Age  
    <5 5.7% 6.0% 5.9% 5.6% 6.8% 5.8% 6.8% 6.2% 6.3% 6.0% 6.9% 5.4% 4.2% 4.3% 4.7% 3.8% 4.4% 869
    5-17 9.8% 9.2% 9.5% 9.6% 9.7% 10.7% 10.0% 10.7% 11.0% 10.7% 10.6% 10.7% 9.9% 10.2% 9.8% 10.0% 9.9% 5,313
    18-44 7.2% 6.9% 6.3% 6.4% 7.0% 7.3% 7.2% 7.2% 7.6% 8.1% 8.0% 8.1% 6.7% 7.5% 7.5% 8.1% 7.5% 8,518
    45-64 6.7% 7.1% 6.9% 7.0% 7.3% 7.5% 7.2% 7.5% 7.8% 8.4% 8.7% 8.4% 7.8% 7.6% 8.4% 9.2% 8.5% 7,044
    65+ 6.0% 5.9% 5.8% 7.0% 7.6% 7.0% 7.5% 7.2% 7.7% 8.1% 7.6% 7.0% 6.3% 6.9% 6.6% 7.4% 7.0% 3,447
    Sex  
    Male 6.4% 6.2% 5.9% 6.4% 6.4% 7.0% 6.5% 7.1% 7.0% 7.0% 7.2% 7.0% 6.2% 6.3% 6.5% 6.9% 6.4% 10,035
    Female 8.3% 8.1% 8.0% 7.9% 8.8% 8.6% 8.9% 8.5% 9.3% 9.9% 9.7% 9.5% 8.3% 9.0% 9.1% 9.7% 9.3% 15,156
    Race/Ethnicity  
    White 7.4% 7.2% 6.9% 7.3% 7.6% 7.9% 7.6% 7.8% 8.1% 8.1% 8.2% 8.1% 7.4% 7.6% 7.8% 8.3% 8.1% 15,718
    Black 8.5% 9.6% 9.2% 9.2% 9.7% 9.1% 10.0% 10.3% 11.1% 12.1% 11.6% 11.9% 9.9% 9.9% 10.3% 11.6% 10.1% 3,910
    Asian 4.7% 4.4% 2.8% 3.4% 4.7% 5.6% 4.1% 4.6% 5.2% 5.7% 5.2% 4.6% 3.7% 4.8% 4.2% 5.5% 4.4% 800
    American Indian/Alaska Native 8.4% 10.6% 12.3% 9.5% 8.5% 11.0% 9.0% 14.3% 9.9% 10.0% 16.5% 11.2% 7.1% 13.7% 11.6% 11.4% 9.6% 228
    Hispanic 5.9% 4.9% 5.5% 5.2% 6.2% 6.4% 6.8% 5.8% 6.3% 7.3% 7.3% 7.0% 5.9% 6.7% 6.6% 6.6% 6.4% 3,692
    Education  
    Less Than High School 6.9% 6.8% 7.5% 8.0% 8.1% 8.2% 7.8% 8.0% 9.3% 8.2% 8.5% 8.7% 7.2% 7.9% 8.3% 8.3% 8.4% 2,063
    High School Diploma or GED 6.1% 6.2% 5.7% 6.1% 6.5% 6.7% 6.4% 6.5% 7.1% 7.3% 8.4% 7.3% 7.0% 7.0% 7.1% 8.5% 7.7% 3,937
    Some College 7.1% 7.4% 6.9% 7.2% 8.0% 8.1% 8.3% 7.5% 8.3% 9.6% 8.8% 8.8% 7.6% 7.9% 8.4% 9.0% 8.7% 5,308
    Bachelors Degree or Higher 6.2% 6.1% 5.5% 6.0% 6.3% 6.3% 6.5% 6.2% 6.6% 7.0% 7.1% 6.9% 6.2% 6.6% 6.8% 7.2% 6.8% 5,374
      2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

    Source:
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health Interview Survey, 2001-2017. Harmonized by Minnesota Population Center and State Health Access Data Assistance Center. Integrated Health Interview Series data analyzed by the American Lung Association Research and Program Services Division.

    • Current prevalence was defined as answering "yes" to both "Have you EVER been told by a health professional that you had asthma?" and "Do you still have asthma?"
    • Education categories include only adults ages 25 years and older.
  • Children ages 5-17 years had the highest current prevalence rates compared to other age groups at 9.9 percent in 2017.
  • Females (9.3%) were about 44 percent more likely than males (6.4%) to still have asthma in 2017.

Asthma Attack Prevalence

  • In 2017, 11.5 million, or 45.6 percent of those ever diagnosed with asthma by a health professional and still had asthma had at least one asthma attack.
  • This proportion was a decrease of 19 percent from 56.3 percent in 2001.
  • Children less than 5 years of age had the highest attack rates compared to other age groups at 58.7 percent in 2017.
  • Females (47.8%) were 13 percent more likely than males (42.2%) to have had an asthma attack in 2017.
  • Estimates of asthma attack rates are not accurate for some racial and ethnic groups for single years due to small sample sizes. To allow for accurate comparisons between groups, we combined five years of data and found that in 2013 to 2017, asthma attack rates were very similar for racial and ethnic groups:
    • Hispanics – 46.7 percent
    • Whites – 46.6 percent
    • Asians – 46.2 percent
    • Blacks – 46.0 percent
    • American Indians/Alaska Natives – 42.1 percent
  • Asthma attack rates in 2017 were also similar by level of education, ranging from 43.3 percent for those with a bachelor’s degree or higher to 45.7 percent for those with some college.  

    Trends in Asthma Attack Rate by Age, Sex and Race/Ethnicity

      2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
      Rate Count (thousands)
    Total 56.3% 56.6% 53.8% 54.3% 53.2% 52.0% 51.7% 52.6% 49.5% 51.6% 49.1% 50.7% 49.9% 44.7% 46.9% 46.9% 45.6% 11,462
    Age  
    <5 70.7% 77.3% 69.7% 65.1% 60.8% 69.9% 59.0% 64.4% 66.2% 68.3% 60.9% 60.8% 66.5% 56.5% 60.6% 62.4% 58.7% 510
    5-17 59.8% 61.9% 61.0% 60.4% 55.6% 53.2% 53.7% 55.6% 51.1% 56.1% 54.1% 54.2% 56.6% 46.7% 45.2% 52.5% 50.4% 2,675
    18-44 56.2% 55.0% 51.8% 51.8% 55.8% 50.0% 51.0% 52.0% 50.1% 48.5% 46.6% 49.4% 46.8% 41.8% 46.7% 41.1% 38.9% 3,316
    45-64 54.4% 51.0% 51.4% 54.8% 53.1% 56.4% 52.6% 53.4% 49.4% 53.6% 49.5% 53.4% 51.7% 48.8% 49.8% 52.3% 50.7% 3,566
    65+ 43.2% 49.9% 38.8% 42.5% 37.7% 37.5% 44.3% 40.5% 36.9% 41.6% 40.7% 37.8% 36.5% 37.8% 39.4% 38.7% 40.6% 1,395
    Sex  
    Male 54.1% 55.1% 52.7% 55.2% 51.5% 47.3% 48.9% 50.1% 47.7% 49.8% 45.9% 49.8% 46.8% 43.0% 41.9% 44.8% 42.2% 4,231
    Female 57.9% 57.7% 54.6% 53.6% 54.5% 55.7% 53.6% 54.7% 50.8% 52.9% 51.4% 51.3% 52.2% 45.9% 50.3% 48.4% 47.8% 7,231
    Race/Ethnicity  
    White 55.7% 56.0% 52.8% 53.9% 53.8% 51.9% 51.3% 51.5% 48.9% 52.0% 49.8% 50.7% 50.4% 44.1% 46.6% 46.7% 45.5% 7,135
    Black 60.6% 56.9% 53.3% 56.1% 45.3% 49.7% 49.8% 52.1% 48.1% 47.7% 50.3% 51.5% 49.5% 46.5% 44.0% 48.5% 41.6% 1,624
    Asian -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 59.5% 57.2% 50.7% 44.5% 51.2% 41.9% 48.3% -- 52.6% 421
    American Indian/Alaska Native -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
    Hispanic 54.7% 57.7% 56.5% 54.1% 56.7% 55.0% 57.4% 55.3% 50.3% 51.4% 45.9% 52.1% 47.4% 43.9% 49.1% 46.7% 46.7% 1,725
    Education  
    Less Than High School 54.0% 51.6% 48.3% 54.3% 53.2% 49.3% 55.4% 55.5% 49.3% 49.2% 46.9% 53.4% 40.4% 48.3% 47.7% 46.2% 43.6% 900
    High School Diploma or GED 49.2% 53.5% 50.3% 48.4% 49.7% 51.2% 47.2% 45.4% 46.8% 44.7% 45.3% 47.1% 49.7% 46.0% 39.2% 46.8% 44.4% 1,746
    Some College 54.5% 55.7% 55.2% 53.4% 53.1% 55.1% 55.8% 55.0% 51.6% 51.5% 49.1% 54.9% 53.6% 48.4% 51.6% 45.0% 45.7% 2,417
    Bachelors Degree or Higher 57.4% 50.8% 47.5% 52.1% 52.0% 50.4% 48.8% 52.8% 47.6% 54.5% 50.1% 47.5% 45.0% 38.9% 47.4% 47.6% 43.3% 2,324
      2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

    Source:
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health Interview Survey, 2001-2017. Harmonized by Minnesota Population Center and State Health Access Data Assistance Center. Integrated Health Interview Series data analyzed by the American Lung Association Research and Program Services Division.

    • Attack prevalence was defined as answering yes to all of "Have you ever been told by a health professional that you had asthma?," "Do you still have asthma?," and "During the past 12 months, have you had an episode of asthma or asthma attack?"
    • Education categories include only adults ages 25 years and older.
    • --Estimate not reliable due to small sample size.
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Missed School and Work Days

  • In 2013, there were 13.8 million missed school days due to asthma among children ages 5-17 years old.
  • In 2013, there were 10.1 million missed work days due to asthma among employed adults ages 18 years and older.
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Healthcare Use

Hospitalizations

  • In 2014, there were 339,890 hospitalizations with asthma listed as the primary cause, or 141.0 per 100,000 people.
  • The asthma hospitalization rate decreased at an average rate of 1.3 points per year from 1993 to 2014, which was statistically significant, or 21 percent overall.

Emergency Department Visits

  • In 2014, there were 1.956 million emergency room visits with asthma listed as the primary cause, or 613.3 per 100,000 people.
  • The asthma emergency department visit rate increased at an average rate of 8.2 points per year from 2006 to 2014, which was statistically significant, or 10 percent overall.
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Economic Cost

  • From 2008 to 2013, asthma accounted for $81.9 billion each year in total economic cost in the United States:
    • Health care costs – $50.3 billion per year
    • Mortality – $29.0 billion per year
    • Missed school and work days – $3.0 billion per year
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  • Sources
    1. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. HCUPnet, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, 2006-2014.
    2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, 2011-2017. Analysis by the American Lung Association Epidemiology and Statistics Unit using SPSS software.
    3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. CDC WONDER On-line Database, compiled from Compressed Mortality File 1999-2016 Series 20 No. 2V, 2019.
    4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health Interview Survey, 1999-2017. Analysis by the American Lung Association Research and Program Services Division of Integrated Health Interview Series data from Minnesota Population Center and State Health Access Data Assistance Center.
    5. Nurmagambetov TA, Kuwahara R, Garbe P. The Economic Burden of Asthma in the United States, 2008-2013. Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 2018; 15(3):348-56.

    Page Last Updated: August 27, 2019

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