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Kilauea on the Big Island of Hawaii is one of the most active volcanoes in the world. Part of this activity is the production and release of gases mixed with water and tiny particles such as sulfur compounds to form VOG. One of the gases released by Kilauea is sulfur dioxide (SO2). The SO2 reacts with other chemicals in the air to form both liquid and solid particulate pollution. The particles scatter light, making the air appear hazy. It is this pollution that we see and call VOG. SO2 levels in vog are greatest close to the volcano. These chemicals are irritating to the eyes, nose, throat and lungs.
Kilauea also produces tons of lava every day. When the lava flows into the ocean, the intense heat evaporates the water, vaporizing salts at the same time. As the water vapor cools, the salts recombine and hydrogen chloride is formed. This reacts with water to form droplets of hydrochloric acid. The droplets scatter light forming a haze we call LAZE.
The VOG is moved away from Kilauea by wind. The wind direction determines which part of Hawaii will be affected. When the prevailing, northeasterly tradewinds are blowing, VOG collects on the Kona side of the Big Island before being blown out to sea. When southerly (Kona) winds are blowing, VOG affects the Hilo side of the Big Island and may blow up to impact islands farther up the chain.
Up to date Civil Defense Information
VMAP - forecasts vog-related SO2 and particulate exposures for Hawaiʻi Island and also provides animated maps of vog direction flow over the island in real time.
What To Do
If VOG will be heavy in your area, take these extra precautions, especially if you suffer from a chronic breathing problem such as asthma, bronchitis or emphysema:
- Do not smoke. Avoid secondhand smoke.
- Stay indoors and use an air-conditioner, if possible.
- If you have medications, put them in a convenient place. It is important to continue taking your medication.
Medications you need for an acute episode should be readily available. If you don't have any medications, but feel that you might need them, call your physician. Make sure you have clear instructions from your physician as to what to do if your lung condition suddenly worsens.
- Assume that your lung condition may deteriorate during periods of VOG and contact your physician as soon as any problem develops. Do not allow a respiratory condition to linger, especially if there is a high concentration of VOG.
- Monitor the wind direction to find out if VOG will be blown in your area that day. You can find out the wind direction by watching the television weather report, listening to a weather radio or by checking the weather section of your local newspaper.
- Drink plenty of fluids unless you have a medical condition that requires you to limit your fluid intake.
- Avoid outdoor physical exertion if you have breathing problems.
- A paper, gauze surgical, or non-toxic dust mask may be helpful. NOTE: If you find it more difficult to breathe with the mask on, don't use it. A mask is the least important of these suggestions.
- While these suggestions are intended primarily for persons having chronic lung diseases (asthma, bronchitis, emphysema), they are also useful for normally healthy persons during volcanic haze episodes.
For more information email InfoMTP@Lung.org